读脑技术让电脑读懂你的心

时间:2021-06-30 00:19 作者:鸭脖官网
本文摘要:Last week, engineers sniffing around the programming code for Google Glass found hidden examples of ways that people might interact with the wearable computers without having to say a word. Among them, a user could nod to turn the glasses

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Last week, engineers sniffing around the programming code for Google Glass found hidden examples of ways that people might interact with the wearable computers without having to say a word. Among them, a user could nod to turn the glasses on or off. A single wink might tell the glasses to take a picture.上周,探查谷歌眼镜程序源码的工程师们找到了一些隐蔽的功能,人们也许不必吭一声,就能操作者可穿着式计算机。比如,用户可以用低头的方式打开或重开眼镜。用眨眼转身的方式或许能给眼镜命令,让其照片。

But dont expect these gestures to be necessary for long. Soon, we might interact with our smartphones and computers simply by using our minds. In a couple of years, we could be turning on the lights at home just by thinking about it, or sending an e-mail from our smartphone without even pulling the device from our pocket. Farther into the future, your robot assistant will appear by your side with a glass of lemonade simply because it knows you are thirsty.但是,不要以为这些转身动作的必要性不会持久。迅速,我们就有可能用思维来操作者智能手机和计算机。

再行过两三年,我们有可能只要一想要熄灯,家里的灯就进了,或者不必从口袋里拿著智能手机,就把电子邮件收到去了。再行以后,你的机器人助手不会把一杯柠檬水末端到你身边,因为它告诉你怯了。

Researchers in Samsungs Emerging Technology Lab are testing tablets that can be controlled by your brain, using a cap that resembles a ski hat studded with monitoring electrodes, the MIT Technology Review, the science and technology journal of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, reported this month.麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的科技杂志《MIT技术评论》(MIT Technology Review)本月报导称之为,三星新兴技术实验室(Samsungs Emerging Technology Lab)的研究人员正在测试能用人脑掌控的平板计算机,构建的方法是让人拿着一顶像滑雪帽那样的、布满了监控电极的帽子。The technology, often called a brain computer interface, was conceived to enable people with paralysis and other disabilities to interact with computers or control robotic arms, all by simply thinking about such actions. Before long, these technologies could well be in consumer electronics, too.这种一般来说被称作脑机模块的技术,原本的设想是为了让中断或有其他残疾的人,只必须用脑子想要一些动作,就能操作者计算机、或掌控机械臂。过没法多久,这类技术也可能会被中用大众化的电子产品上。Some crude brain-reading products already exist, letting people play easy games or move a mouse around a screen. NeuroSky, a company based in San Jose, Calif., recently released a Bluetooth-enabled headset that can monitor slight changes in brain waves and allow people to play concentration-based games on computers and smartphones. These include a zombie-chasing game, archery and a game where you dodge bullets — all these apps use your mind as the joystick. Another company, Emotiv, sells a headset that looks like a large alien hand and can read brain waves associated with thoughts, feelings and expressions. The device can be used to play Tetris-like games or search through Flickr photos by thinking about an emotion the person is feeling — like happy, or excited — rather than searching by keywords. Muse, a lightweight, wireless headband, can engage with an app that exercises the brain by forcing people to concentrate on aspects of a screen, almost like taking your mind to the gym.市场上早已有一些非常简单的加载脑信号的产品,人们能用它们来玩游戏非常简单游戏、或者移动屏幕上的鼠标。

最近,总部在加利福尼亚州圣何塞的神念科技(NeuroSky)发售了一款具备蓝牙通讯能力的耳机,该耳机能通过监测脑电波的微小变化,让人们在计算机和智能手机上玩游戏基于注意力的游戏,还包括平僵尸的游戏、射箭,以及躲藏子弹的游戏,这些游戏软件都用你的大脑作为操纵杆。另一家公司Emotiv正在上市一款看起来像一只极大的外星人手的耳机,它能加载与思维、感觉和表情涉及的脑电波。该设备能被用来玩像俄罗斯方块这样的游戏,或者通过想要一个自己正在感觉的情感——比如快乐或激动——而不是通过关键词,在Flickr照片里搜寻有关图片。而取名为Muse的轻巧无线头箍,能与一个“磨练大脑”的应用软件对话,它不会强制人们将注意力集中于屏幕上的某些方面,就看起来带上你的大脑去健身房。

Car manufacturers are exploring technologies packed into the back of the seat that detect when people fall asleep while driving and rattle the steering wheel to awaken them.汽车制造商正在研发需要取出座位椅的技术,这种技术能监测到人在驾车时睡觉,并通过震动方向盘来睡觉他们。But the products commercially available today will soon look archaic. The current brain technologies are like trying to listen to a conversation in a football stadium from a blimp, said John Donoghue, a neuroscientist and director of the Brown Institute for Brain Science. To really be able to understand what is going on with the brain today you need to surgically implant an array of sensors into the brain. In other words, to gain access to the brain, for now you still need a chip in your head.然而,现在市场上有数的这类产品迅速将不会过时。布朗大学脑科学研究所(Brown Institute for Brain Science)所长、神经科学家约翰·多诺霍(John Donoghue)说道,“如今的脑技术,就像企图从一架软式飞艇上听得下面足球场中的谈话。

用如今的技术,要想要确实理解大脑里的活动,你必须用手术在大脑中植入一个传感器阵列。”换句话说,最少在现在,想要取得大脑信息,你仍须要在大脑中装个芯片。

Last year, a project called BrainGate pioneered by Dr. Donoghue, enabled two people with full paralysis to use a robotic arm with a computer responding to their brain activity. One woman, who had not used her arms in 15 years, could grasp a bottle of coffee, serve herself a drink and then return the bottle to a table. All done by imagining the robotic arms movements.去年,由多诺霍联合的一个取名为“大脑之门”(BrainGate)的项目,让两位几乎中断的患者,通过能号召其大脑活动的计算机,来用于机械臂。其中一位15年来都无法用自己手臂的妇女,能端起装有咖啡的瓶子,让自己喝上一口,然后把瓶子敲返桌上,这些都是通过想象机械臂如何动作来构建的。But that chip inside the head could soon vanish as scientists say we are poised to gain a much greater understanding of the brain, and, in turn, technologies that empower brain computer interfaces. An initiative by the Obama administration this year called the Brain Activity Map project, a decade-long research project, aims to build a comprehensive map of the brain.但是,那个取出大脑的芯片有可能迅速就不必须了,因为科学家称之为,我们正在需要更加了解地理解大脑,这转而将不会提升脑机接口技术的能力。奥巴马政府今年启动了一项取名为“人脑活动图”(Brain Activity Map)的计划,这项为期十年的计划目的绘制全面的脑活动图。

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Miyoung Chun, a molecular biologist and vice president for science programs at the Kavli Foundation, is working on the project and although she said it would take a decade to completely map the brain, companies would be able to build new kinds of brain computer interface products within two years.卡弗里基金会(Kavli Foundation)科学项目副总裁、分子生物学家全美永(Miyoung Chun)正在参予这一计划。她回应,已完成大脑活动图的绘制虽然必须十年时间,但公司可以在两年内生产出有新型的脑机模块产品。The Brain Activity Map will give hardware companies a lot of new tools that will change how we use smartphones and tablets, Dr. Chun said. It will revolutionize everything from robotic implants and neural prosthetics, to remote controls, which could be history in the foreseeable future when you can change your television channel by thinking about it.全美禄说道,“人脑活动图将给硬件公司获取大量新的工具,这不会转变我们用于智能手机和平板计算机的方式。

这将带给完全的转变,从植入式机器肢到人工神经功能器官。还有遥控器,在可意识到的将来遥控器不会沦为历史,到那时,只要你想要换成哪个频道,电视机就不会换成那个频道。”There are some fears to be addressed. On the Muse Web site, an F.A.Q. is devoted to convincing customers that the device cannot siphon thoughts from peoples minds.我们现在还须要减轻一些人们的忧虑。

在Muse网站上有专门的解说页,极力让顾客坚信,其设备会吸出人的思想。These brain-reading technologies have been the stuff of science fiction for decades.这类读脑技术几十年来仍然都是科幻小说的内容。

In the 1982 movie Firefox, Clint Eastwood plays a fighter pilot on a mission to the Soviet Union to steal a prototype fighter jet that can be controlled by a brain neurolink. But Mr. Eastwood has to think in Russian for the plane to work, and he almost dies when he cannot get the missiles to fire during a dogfight. (Dont worry, he survives.)在1982年的电影《火狐》(Firefox)中,克林特·伊斯特伍德(Clint Eastwood)扮演着的战斗机飞行员被派往俄罗斯,他的任务是偷走一架可以用大脑神经相连掌控的战斗机原型。但伊斯特伍不能用俄语思维才能启动战斗机,而他差点因为无法在空战中指挥官飞机升空导弹而丧命黄泉。(别担心,他活着下来了。

)Although we wont be flying planes with our minds anytime soon, surfing the Web on our smartphones might be closer.尽管我们会迅速就能靠思维来驾驶员飞机,但靠思维用智能手机网际网路有可能已为时不远。Dr. Donoghue of Brown said one of the current techniques used to read peoples brains is called P300, in which a computer can determine which letter of the alphabet someone is thinking about based on the area of the brain that is activated when she sees a screen full of letters. But even when advances in brain-reading technologies speed up, there will be new challenges, as scientists will have to determine if the person wants to search the Web for something in particular, or if he is just thinking about a random topic.布朗大学的多诺霍称,目前用来读书人脑的技术之一,是被称作P300的方法,当一个人看见剩屏幕的字母时,计算机可根据被转录的脑部区域来辨识这个人在想要哪个字母。但是,就算读脑技术发展的速度减缓了,科学家仍不会面对新的挑战,比如他们须要确认人们是在想要上网络搜寻某个特定的东西呢,还是在就让某个随便的话题。

Just because Im thinking about a steak medium-rare at a restaurant doesnt mean I actually want that for dinner, Dr. Donoghue said. Just like Google glasses, which will have to know if youre blinking because there is something in your eye or if you actually want to take a picture, brain computer interfaces will need to know if youre just thinking about that steak or really want to order it.多诺霍说道,“意味着因为我在想要餐馆里的一份三分煮的牛排,并不意味著我真为想要把牛排当晚餐。就像谷歌眼镜必须告诉,你是因为眼睛里有东西而眨眼呢,还是因为你显然想要拍电影张照片。”脑机模块必须告诉,你只是在想要牛排呢,还是显然想要点一份。


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